Although Europe has different types of climatic conditions, depending upon the geographic conditions of the place, yet on a general level, most of the Europe climate remains temperate and mild, with cool summers and cold winters. Generally, if we compare different places on the same latitude with places on the same latitude in Europe, we would notice that places in Europe have a more favorable climate than places elsewhere in America, Asia or Africa. If we compare the average January temperatures of Berlin, Calgary and Irkutusk- lying in the Asian region of Russia, we would notice that the temperature in Berlin is about 8 and 22 degrees Celsius higher than temperatures in Calgary and Irkutusk respectively.
So what is the main reason behind such a favorable and mild Europe climate? The answer is- winds from the Atlantic Ocean. Warm winds sweep the whole continent and keep the continent mildly warm. Ocean currents carrying warm waters from the Gulf of México have a major role in this natural phenomenon. Since there is not mountain barrier in Europe, which is large enough to stop these winds from sweeping across the continent, and since most of the continent is within the range of 300 miles from the Atlantic Ocean, these currents affect the climatic conditions of the whole continent. Therefore, Europe climate is quite the same throughout the continent.
Norway is witness to the most dramatic effects of the North Westerly winds and the ocean currents. Since most of the parts in Norway lie in the Arctic region, they should technically have been covered in snow, but the warm currents and the winds have had such an effect that most of Norway’s coastline remains snow-free throughout.
Northern Europe climate, naturally, has longer and cooler winters compared to the southern part of the continent. Winters are colder and longer in the East as compared to the west. Summers are shorter, but hotter in the East as we move towards the west.
As far as rainfall is concerned, most parts of Europe receive an annual rainfall of 20-60 inches, with the maximum of it happening towards the West of the mountains (around 80 inches in general). The areas receiving lighter rainfall include the Southern part of Spain, Kazakhstan and northern part of Scandinavia.